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aid down on the seabed very slowly. This three metres of limestone took millions of years to accumulate. But when the asteroid struck… it was geology at hyper-speed. The next metres of rock were deposited in a single day, leaving a unique and chaotic jumble. Sean, I mean, how do you make sense of this incredible place that you’ve got here? It is amazing. This is km worth of core, collected by the International Ocean Discovery Program and all its predecessors back to the late ‘s. Mm-hm. But from all these cores, the most amazing is the one we just collected… Yeah. In the Chicxulub impact crater. Of course, yeah. You can see this black, flowing texture of the rock. This is actually… It looks like it flowed, right? Mm. You can see the textures in it. This is actually melted basement rock, melted granite, and it actually takes amazing pressures to do that, and amazing pressures to melt the rock. This is… So I’ve got a piece of what would be considered, sort of, normal granite, if you will the kind that you might put on your counter-top, and that’s why we use it, cos it’s nice and hard. I mean, it… Right? Pretty solid. But this… Yeah, exactly. This stuff has actually seen shock of an incredible level, so think of it as pressure waves moving down through the granite, like lots and lots of little earthquakes. And what it’s done to it is, all the way down at the scale of a crystal, is it’s actually deformed it… Mm-hmm. So that the final granite… can be broken. It just crumbled up. That’s… that’s amazing. Yeah. Oh, wow. Just such incredible, amazing forces at work here. This whole event, it’s… I’m still finding it difficult. Well, even as a geophysicist, where we study this for a living, it’s really hard to wrap our brains around the enormity of the pressures involved, and the enormity of the destruction that happens in the middle of an impact, and so quickly. Mm-hm. This all happened in less than ten minutes. It’s becoming clear just how mind-bogglingly huge the Yucatan impact really was. And to help grasp its scale, Sean is taking a trip to a more recent impact site in Arizona. This simple crater here was created by about a -meter, or -foot, asteroid impacting the Earth, about , years ago. It’s about a mile across. It’s actually quite small. It’s basically, simply, a bowl-shaped crater. Everything above the red line that you see there is actually material that used to be buried that has been flipped up on end, and is now… or flipped upside-down, and is now laying as a pile of broken-up material. By studying the shape of the crater and the upheaval of the rock layers, Sean, Jo and the team can compare this site to the Yucatan impact zone, Even a small asteroid strike like this would have had dramatic consequences. So it comes in at something like ,mph. km away from here, we would have a fireball reaching, maybe km away from here, a shock wave, and, say, km away from here are hurricane-force winds, but that would just have been a bad day in, today, northern Arizona. So this is what a m-wide asteroid can do it’s devastating, but localized.